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安卓4.4系统亮点剖析

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谷歌于今天发布了安卓4.4系统与nexus 5手机,安卓4.4更改了系统代号,不再隶属于Jelly Bean果冻豆,使用了全新的昵称KitKat雀巢巧克力。安卓4.4无疑是一个非常关键的更新,也是今年Google在移动市场最大的重头戏之一。我们来了解一下新系统的亮点。

◆屏幕虚拟按钮底栏Navigation Bar变透明并可定制

从安卓4.0开始,Google推崇Holo设计,那条黑色的屏幕虚拟按钮底栏,也就是Navigaion Bar就是Holo设计中不可或缺的一环。屏幕虚拟按钮底栏Navigation Bar的一大优点就是灵活性,按钮可任意定制,但实际上却并非那么灵活。在全屏应用中,屏幕上依然会显示黑色的底栏,减少了显示操作面积,并不美观。

现在,安卓4.4对这条屏幕虚拟按钮底栏Navigation Bar动了手术。在安卓4.4的锁屏和主界面中,底栏从黑色变透明,更加美观。此外,安卓4.4的API还开放了相应接口,第三方App也可以使用透明的底栏。实际上,在此前已经由第三方厂商如LG、三星和摩托罗拉使用自己定制的底栏,但这只局限于系统层面。现在Google进一步开放底栏界面定制,App也可以定制底栏的透明度甚至按钮,也能够请求全屏模式——碍眼的底栏可以彻底隐藏。

不过,这个安卓4.4的特性不适用于所有设备,比如说Nexus 10就不支持这个特性。至于Google是基于怎样的考虑,就不得而知了。

◆播放音乐时锁屏全屏显示专辑封面

如果对iPhone第一代的发布会有印象,应该会记得乔布斯拼命强调iPhone播放音乐的酷炫之处,那就是可以显示漂亮的专辑封面。在安卓4.4中,Google也针对专辑封面显示作了改进。在安卓4.4中,如果在锁屏的时候播放音乐,锁屏壁纸会被全屏显示的音乐专辑封面取代,煞是好看。

◆随时语音“OK Google”

自iPhone 4S推出后,Siri一下子吊起了Google的兴趣。Google大力发展自家的智能语音服务Google Now,步伐甚至比Siri还要快,比如说对自然语义的解析要优于Google。不仅如此,Google Now的启动还比Siri更迅捷,在Google眼镜中可以使用“OK Glass”命令启动智能语音系统,在Moto X手机可以使用“OK Google”命令。现在,“OK Google”命令也出现在了安卓4.4中。

这种特性名为“Always Listening”,权且译为“随时语音”吧。这个技术可以让手机在待机的状态下,也能够以特定命令唤醒智能语音系统。不过,安卓4.4随时语音的特性需要硬件支持,Moto X和Google眼镜都有特定芯片,而Nexus 5使用的骁龙800处理器也有些相应的模块。如果是其他设备,也许需要先点亮屏幕才能用“OK Google”开启语音系统,算不上随时语音。

◆自带屏幕录像功能

这个特性此前没人爆料过,只在著名的第三方安卓ROM CyanogenMod的更新预告中有出现,三星手机也原生支持这个功能。现在Google把屏幕录像推广到了原生ROM中,用户升级安卓4.4后可以直接进行屏幕录像。

无论是手机还是平板设备,横屏也好竖屏也好,都可以使用安卓4.4的屏幕录像功能。安卓4.4将录下来的视频保存为MP4格式,能够在其他设备中播放。只是开启安卓4.4的屏幕录像有点麻烦,用户需要在adb中以命令行的形式开启。如果设备不连接电脑,就没法使用屏幕录像。

第三方App也许可以解决这个问题?现在的第三方App的确可以屏幕录像,但需要root。安卓4.4的情况应该有所改观。此外,如果App由于版权方面的原因,不想被记录屏幕录像的话,App只需要请求“SurfaceView.setSecure()”即可避免自己被录下来,相当不错。

◆支持动作传感器

苹果iPhone 5S的一大改进就是加入了M7动作传感器,可以低功耗记录用户的各种动作,手机更智能。现在安卓4.4也有类似特性,安卓4.4可以保持和动作传感器的链接,待机状态下识别用户的动作。

这个特性的前景相当广阔,比如设备感应到你举起手机时,会自动为你亮起屏幕无需按电源键;感应到你跑步时,自动计算速度和消耗的卡路里——这些都是在低功耗的环境下实现的。当然,安卓4.4的这个特性需要动作传感器的支持,目前只有Nexus 5能够开启。

◆专为低配置设备优化,512M RAM即可流畅运行!

前面提到的很多安卓4.4特性,都需要Nexus 5这类新设备支持。但是,实际上安卓4.4对低配置的设备意义尤为重大。Google此次在安卓4.4中专门为低配置设备优化,512M RAM的设备也能够跑顺安卓4.4!

Google在安卓4.4中启动了一个名为“Project Svelte”(瘦身计划)的项目,其意义不亚于安卓4.1中启动的“Project Butter”(黄油计划)。Project Svelte瘦身计划能够让安卓4.4更流畅地运行在512M RAM的设备中,减少安卓4.4运行时所需的内存,在耗内存的App运行时也能保持系统速度。安卓4.4还调整了多任务机制,使用顺序执行服务的方案,避免系统卡死。开发者还可以使用“ActivityManager.isLowRamDevice”API,决定App是否驻留内存(会有开发者自觉把App弄成墓碑吗?)。Google会在自己的App中率先推广这一特性,升级安卓4.4后即可享受到Project Svelte瘦身计划带来的好处。而对于高配置安卓机来说,瘦身计划则可以带来更快速的多任务响应,意义非凡。

安卓试图用Project Svelte瘦身计划来减少安卓的碎片化。Google大概是这么想的,既然低配置的机器都能流畅运行最新版安卓,老设备没理由不升级上来了吧?旧设备会升级到最新系统吗?笔者觉得还是问问各个厂商比较靠谱,Google话不了事。

◆文件管理全新改版

云存储等云服务正风生水起,Google也拥有自家的云存储服务Google Drive。现在安卓4.4集成了全新的文件管理,将图库、云存储、下载文件等集成到了一起。通过云端,安卓4.4可以无缝在多台设备中共享资料。

◆自带来电显示

Google在安卓4.4中引进了智能识别来电特性,当你接到陌生来电的时候,安卓4.4可以根据Google地图自动搜索当地的电话簿,为你适配号码。安卓4.4的来电显示不仅可以识别来电者的名字,还能够配上相应图片,非常强大。不过,安卓4.4的这项功能主要用于商业,不会收录私人的来电号码,用户无需担心隐私泄漏。

◆打印

这项新特性在此前就已经得到曝光了。安卓4.4带有打印输出功能,如果需要打印东西的话,可以利用安卓4.4自带的打印功能,用WiFi或者Google云打印连接打印机并打印文件。安卓4.4的打印功能非常强大,用户可以自定义打印尺寸、需要打印的页数等等,和电脑差异不大。

此外,Google也将打印的相应API开放给了开发者,第三方App可以在安卓4.4中利用打印的新特性。也许……第三方厂商可以开发安卓的拍立得附件?

◆支持蓝牙MAP(Message Access Profile)

安卓4.4支持蓝牙MAP,这可不是蓝牙地图。蓝牙MAP全称Bluetooth Message Access Profile,用户可以利用蓝牙,在设备间相互交换信息。这项技术有什么用呢?以汽车为例子,Ford Sync / MyFord Touch、BMW iDrive等设备,还有Lexus的很多车型都支持蓝牙,这些车辆往往也会使用安卓系统。使用蓝牙MAP连接车辆,能够用手机扩展汽车的功能。比如说上面提到的智能语音,用蓝牙MAP连接手机和汽车后,即可让汽车支持智能语音特性,非常强大。

◆App请求Web页面使用Chrome渲染

在安卓上,很多App呈现的页面实际上都是网页,比如说小米商城App,开启的就是Wap版的小米商城。现在,安卓4.4支持App渲染网页的时候,调用Chromium引擎。这样一来,App显示网页内容的速度和质量都会大幅提升——再也不用担心某些蹩脚网络阅读器出现排版错乱,开启不完整的情况了。所有的App无论新老,都可以使用Chromium引擎解析最新的HTML5、CSS3还有JS代码,用户体验更上一层楼。

◆改进通讯录

在安卓4.4中,电话功能有了革命性的变更。除了之前提到的来电显示外,安卓4.4还重新设计了通讯录,会自动调整联系人的排列,将经常联系的人放到前列。通讯录的搜索功能也得到了强化,用户能够在安卓4.4的通讯录中不仅可以搜索联系人,还能够搜索附近的商店、其他App中的好友等等,安卓4.4的通讯录变得更加万能了。

◆短信和环聊合体

这个特性在之前已经被曝光过。安卓4.4附带了Google自家IM环聊的最新版,新版的环聊2.0继承了短信、彩信功能。环聊已经不仅仅是一个单纯的、像QQ那样的IM,还肩负了收发短信、彩信的功能。环聊的功能远比之前的短信应用强大,用户能够在环聊中发送地理位置、GIF动态图片等信息。

联想到环聊也有语音通话和视频通话功能,也许在未来连电话功能也会被集成到环聊中去?

◆支持IR化身遥控器

将安卓机变成遥控器,已经是屡见不鲜了,三星、LG、HTC等厂商已经加入了相应功能。现在,Google在安卓4.4中原生支持红外线遥控(Infrared Blasting,IR),你可以用安卓机遥控家里的电视等设备了。

不过遗憾的是,安卓4.4的遥控功能有点弱,只能够发射信号,不能接受/学习信号,也就意味着没法用家电自带的信号自动适配来调整安卓机相应的遥控功能了,不得不说是个遗憾。

◆蓝牙设备可以直接调节系统音量了

在之前,连接安卓的蓝牙耳机等设备只能调节自身的音量,并不能调节安卓系统的音量,非常不方便。安卓4.4中加入了对蓝牙AVRCP 1.3特性的支持,蓝牙耳机等设备可以直接调节安卓系统的音量了。虽然这是个小小的改进,却带来了很多方便。不过要注意的是,这个特性只支持使用安卓4.4自带驱动的蓝牙设备,有些蓝牙设备使用了自家编写的底层,就没法享受到这一特性了。

◆发烧友福音:音乐播放续航更长

越来越多的安卓机使用了独立的音频DSP芯片,但在以往,用安卓机播放音乐都需要经过应用层处理,会调用系统中央处理器,比较耗电。要改善问题,只能期望设备厂商自己编写驱动。现在,安卓4.4默认将音频输出到独立的DSP音频芯片中进行硬件解码,绕开了应用层,大大节省了电量。

根据介绍,以Nexus 5为例,使用普通的应用层音频解码,能够连续播放30小时;但如果直接用DSP芯片解码,竟可连续播放60小时!非常惊人。不过目前只有Nexus 5支持这一特性,但Google称正在和芯片厂商展开合作,安卓4.4的这项特性在未来应该会得到更广泛的支持。

◆NFC支付

这也是一个之前就得到曝光的特性。安卓4.4能够使用NFC,利用Google钱包直接支付。为此,Google使用了非常多的措施保证支付的安全,这里就不一一罗列了。不过嘛,Google钱包在国外也不太流行,国内更是基本没人用,安卓4.4的这个特性也许能够为Google钱包添加一把助燃剂?

◆其他改进

安卓4.4还有非常多的改进,包括且不限于:

·浏览器支持Chromecast订阅

·增添设备管理器,登录相应页面后可实现查找手机功能

·重新设计下载器

·更容易设置主屏

·全新的Email应用

·全屏壁纸预览

·HDR+相机

·更改快捷设置,随时可以进入本地设置

·App沙盒

·提升Nexus 5的触屏体验

◆总结

安卓4.4新功能、安卓4.4新特性琳琅满目,令人振奋。虽然有些安卓4.4新功能只能够在Nexus 5上实现,但适用于其他机型的重磅功能也不少。特别是Project Svelte瘦身计划,简直炸裂!从来都说安卓吃硬件,Google这次下决心在省资源方面做文章了。当然,安卓4.4的发布和安卓4.4的升级是两回事,面对如此诱人的安卓4.4,会有多少厂商能满足用户尝新的欲望呢?这次安卓4.4特别为低配置设备优化,厂商们总不能又搬出“配置太低升级不了”的理由了,期待安卓4.4升级吧!(转自太平洋电脑网)



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